In the context of Rust, asynchronous code refers to code that uses the async/await language feature, which allows many tasks to run concurrently on a few threads (or even a single thread).

Concurrency and parallelism

Concurrency and parallelism are two related concepts that are both used when talking about performing multiple tasks at the same time. If something happens in parallel, then it also happens concurrently, but the opposite is not true: Alternating between two tasks, but never actually working on both at the same time is concurrency but not parallelism.


A future is a value that stores the current state of some operation. A future also has a poll method, that makes the operation continue until it needs to wait for something, such as an network connection. Calls to the poll method should return very quickly.

Futures are often created by combining multiple futures using .await in an async block.


An executor or scheduler is something that executes futures by calling the poll method repeatedly. There is no executor in the standard library, so you need an external library for this, and the most widely used executor is provided by the Tokio runtime.

An executor is able to run a large number of futures concurrently on a few threads. It does this by swapping the currently running task at awaits. If code spends a long time without reaching an .await, that is called "blocking the thread" or "not yielding back to the executor", which prevents other tasks from running.


A runtime is a library that contains an executor along with various utilities that integrate with that executor, such as timing utilities and IO. The words runtime and executor are sometimes used interchangeably. The standard library has no runtime, so you need an external library for this, and the most widely used runtime is the Tokio runtime.

The word Runtime is also used in other contexts, e.g. the phrase "Rust has no runtime" is sometimes used to mean that Rust performs no garbage collection or just-in-time compilation.


A task is an operation running on the Tokio runtime, created by the tokio::spawn or Runtime::block_on function. Tools for creating futures by combining them such as .await and join! do not create new tasks, and each combined part is said to be "in the same task".

Multiple tasks are required for parallelism, but it is possible to concurrently do multiple things on one task using tools such as join!.


Spawning is when the tokio::spawn function is used to create a new task. It can also refer to creating new thread with std::thread::spawn.

Async block

An async block is an easy way to create a future that runs some code. For example:

let world = async {
    println!(" world!");
let my_future = async {
    print!("Hello ");

The code above creates a future called my_future, which if executed prints Hello world!. It does this by first printing hello, and then running the world future. Note that the code above does not print anything on its own — you have to actually execute my_future before anything happens, by either spawning it directly, or by .awaiting it in something you spawn.

Async function

Similarly to an async block, an async function is an easy way to create a function whose body becomes a future. All async functions can be rewritten into ordinary functions that return a future:

async fn do_stuff(i: i32) -> String {
    // do stuff
    format!("The integer is {}.", i)
use std::future::Future;

// the async function above is the same as this:
fn do_stuff(i: i32) -> impl Future<Output = String> {
    async move {
        // do stuff
        format!("The integer is {}.", i)

This uses the impl Trait syntax to return a future, since Future is a trait. Note that since the future created by an async block does not do anything until it is executed, calling an async function does not do anything until the future it returns is executed (ignoring it triggers a warning).


In the context of asynchronous Rust, yielding is what allows the executor to execute many futures on a single thread. Every time a future yields, the executor is able to swap that future with some other future, and by repeatedly swapping the current task, the executor can concurrently execute a large number of tasks. A future can only yield at an .await, so futures that spend a long time between .awaits can prevent other tasks from running.

To be specific, a future yields whenever it returns from the poll method.


The word "blocking" is used in two different ways: The first meaning of "blocking" is simply to wait for something to finish, and the other meaning of blocking is when a future spend a long time without yielding. To be unambiguous, you can use the phrase "blocking the thread" for the second meaning.

Tokio's documentation will always use the second meaning of "blocking".

To run blocking code within Tokio, please see the CPU-bound tasks and blocking code section from the Tokio API reference.


A Stream is an asynchronous version of an Iterator, and provides a stream of values. It is commonly used together with a while let loop like this:

use tokio::stream::StreamExt; // for next()

while let Some(item) = {
    // do something

The word stream is confusingly sometimes used to refer to the AsyncRead and AsyncWrite traits.


A channel is a tool that allows one part of the code to send messages to other parts. Tokio provides a number of channels, each serving a different purpose.

  • mpsc: multi-producer, single-consumer channel. Many values can be sent.
  • oneshot: single-producer, single consumer channel. A single value can be sent.
  • broadcast: multi-producer, multi-consumer. Many values can be send. Each receiver sees every value.
  • watch: single-producer, multi-consumer. Many values can be sent, but no history is kept. Receivers only see the most recent value.

If you need a multi-producer multi-consumer channel where only one consumer sees each message, you can use the async-channel crate.

There are also channels for use outside of asynchronous Rust, such as std::sync::mpsc and crossbeam::channel. These channels wait for messages by blocking the thread, which is not allowed in asynchronous code.


Backpressure is a pattern for designing applications that respond well to high load. For example, the mpsc channel comes in both a bounded and unbounded form. By using the bounded channel, the receiver can put "backpressure" on the sender if the receiver can't keep up with the number of messages, which avoids memory usage growing without bound as more and more messages are sent on the channel.


A design pattern for designing applications. An actor refers to an independently spawned task that manages some resource on behalf of other parts of the application, using channels to communicate with those other parts of the application.

See the channels chapter for an example of an actor.